Wind farms affect both traffic and communications networks. Wind farms may affect the functionality of communications networks based on radio frequencies. Wind farms also form flight obstacles, which must be taken into account when assessing aviation safety. The construction of offshore wind farms must also observe any impact on maritime transport infrastructure. This page provides a more detailed description of the aforementioned impact of wind power plants and the procedures related to wind power.
Wind farms and communications networks
A wind farm is an extensive construction project that may have minor effects on nearly all radio systems in its vicinity. Wind farms may dampen radio signals passing through the farm, or a high-power radio signal may be reflected from the structures of the wind farm and interfere with the reception of the signal. This is why wind power plant contractors must notify all known radio system operators in the vicinity of the construction site. The appropriate coordination range is 30 kilometres. The table below lists radio frequency users whose networks may be affected by wind farms:
|Suomen Turvallisuusverkko Oy|
(www.erillisverkot.fi (External link))
|The Finnish Defence Forces (www.mil.fi (External link))||national|
|Finnish Meteorological Institute (www.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi (External link))||national|
|Finavia (www.finavia.fi (External link))||national|
|Finnish Transport and Communications Agency Traficom (www.traficom.fi (External link))||flight obstacle permissions and offshore wind farms|
TeliaSonera Finland Oyj (www.sonera.fi (External link))
The Åland Islands and local areas
|Local electricity and energy companies|
|Local municipalities and cities|
|Waterworks in local municipalities and cities|
|Local radio operators|
|Local emergency centre|
Wind power operators should try to proactively resolve any challenges in using communications networks by working together with various parties to prevent any disruptions in the first place. If necessary, please contact the Finnish Transport and Communications Agency at firstname.lastname@example.org for further information on frequency users and masts in relation to constructing wind power.
Wind farms and aviation safety
Wind farms create flight obstacles, meaning that their impact on aviation and aviation safety must be examined. Section 158 of the Aviation Act (864/2014) requires advance flight obstacle permissions for erecting wind power plants, the cranes required to build them and any other tall structures required for the project. Please click here (External link) for more detailed instructions on acquiring flight obstacle permissions. The farms must be equipped with aircraft warning lights in accordance with the flight obstacle permit terms and conditions.
Offshore wind power plants and observing maritime transport infrastructure
If an offshore wind farm is located close to routes or vessel transport areas, it may cause disturbances to both vessel radar systems and to Traffic Management Finland (VTS Finland) radar surveillance and result in danger to maritime transport.
The Finnish coast has more than 10,000 kilometres of public routes, stretching all along the Finnish coastline. In addition to this, approximately 100 vessel traffic management radars are located in the shore areas. Due to the comprehensive existing route and radar network, any planned offshore wind farms are usually located relatively close to routes or between routes and vessel traffic management radars. When planning offshore wind farms, you must take route networks, maritime transport safety devices and radar systems into account already in the early stages of planning, as they also impact the suitability of offshore wind farm locations from the point of view of seafaring. Constructing wind power plants on routes is forbidden, as this would prevent maritime transport in the designated area. Anchoring areas and control zones to routes are also important sections of the route structure and fall under the same accessibility requirements. All merchant shipping routes in Finland are covered by traffic control, whose key observation method is radar. The uninterrupted operation of radars is vital. If an offshore wind power farm causes any disruptions to radars, the disruptions must be compensated for by acquiring a new radar.
Offshore wind power projects that have not examined the impact of wind farms on shipping or maritime transport infrastructure may not contain plans to place wind farms closer than 1.5 kilometres from the edges of the route or vessel traffic areas in order to ensure maritime transport safety and uninterrupted traffic. Traficom may assess the above distance more closely once the impact of the wind farm to shipping radar systems and navigators’ visibility to safety devices has been determined. You should contact the Finnish Transport and Communications Agency and VTS Finland concerning the details of the reports already during the initial phase of project planning. This also applies to sea areas suited for wind farms from the point of view of maritime transport.
Offshore wind farm projects: email@example.com , Finnish Transport and Communications Agency
Frequency usage and masts: firstname.lastname@example.org , Finnish Transport and Communications Agency
Flight obstacle permits: https://www.traficom.fi/en/services/apply-obstacle-permission (External link)
Instructions on constructing a wind farm close to traffic routes (External link) (available only in finnish)